Case Study


The costs of adaptation in Punakha, Bhutan: Loss and damage associated with changing monsoon patterns

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In Punakha District, late onset of monsoon rains and lower total amounts of monsoon rain decrease the availability of water for paddy rice irrigation. Farmers try to adapt by changing water-sharing arrangements, intensifying irrigation channel maintenance, and by shifting from rice to lower-yielding, rain-fed crops. A small minority can afford to buy gasoline pumps. For 87% of the survey respondents (N=273), the measures are not enough and/or entail extra costs. In addition, some adaptation measures are reported to cause conflicts between households and villages.

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Norbu Wangdi & Koen Kusters
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